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The History and Current Status of the Rape Kit Backlog in America


Systemic challenges and the delayed pursuit of justice for survivors mark the history of the rape kit backlog in America. However, legislative measures, coupled with the tireless efforts of advocacy groups, are gradually bringing about change. The use of forensic evidence has been a crucial aspect of criminal investigations, especially in cases of sexual assault. Rape kits, which contain vital evidence collected from survivors, play a pivotal role in identifying perpetrators and ensuring the legal system delivers justice. However, the backlog of untested rape kits in the United States has been a longstanding issue. Hindering the pursuit of justice for countless survivors. In this article, we will delve into the history, current status, and concerted efforts to address the rape kit backlog in America.

The Historical Landscape:

The issue of untested rape kits is not a recent phenomenon; it has plagued the U.S. criminal justice system for decades. The backlog started to gain attention in the late 1990s and early 2000s, shedding light on the sheer magnitude of unprocessed evidence collected from sexual assault cases. The reasons behind the backlog are multifaceted, including insufficient resources, lack of prioritization, and systemic issues within law enforcement agencies.


To comprehend the enormity of the problem, it’s essential to consider the statistics surrounding the rape kit backlog. According to the Joyful Heart Foundation, as of 2022, there were an estimated 237,000 untested rape kits in the United States. This backlog represents potential DNA evidence that could identify perpetrators and bring justice to survivors who have already endured immense trauma.

Laws and Legislative Measures:

Recognizing the urgency of addressing the rape kit backlog, various states have implemented legislative measures to expedite testing and improve the overall handling of forensic evidence. The Sexual Assault Forensic Evidence Reporting (SAFER) Act in 2013, established a nationwide reporting system for rape kit backlogs and allocate funding to address the issue.

Additionally, several states have enacted their laws to address the backlog. For instance, in 2019, California passed Assembly Bill 3118, requiring law enforcement agencies to count and report the number of untested rape kits in their possession. These legislative efforts signify a growing acknowledgment of the importance of resolving the backlog and providing closure to survivors.

Advocacy Groups Leading the Charge:

Numerous advocacy groups have played a crucial role in raising awareness and mobilizing efforts to eliminate the rape kit backlog. The Joyful Heart Foundation, founded by actress and activist Mariska Hargitay, has been at the forefront of this movement. The foundation not only works to end the backlog but also provides support to survivors.

End the Backlog, a program launched by the Joyful Heart Foundation. It focuses on creating awareness, advocating for policy reform, and supporting jurisdictions to eliminate the backlog. The organization collaborates with law enforcement agencies, lawmakers, and the public to push for comprehensive solutions.

The National Sexual Assault Kit Initiative (SAKI) is another significant player in addressing the backlog. Funded by the U.S. Department of Justice, SAKI provides resources to law enforcement agencies. SAKI supports the testing of backlogged kits and facilitates collaboration between agencies to enhance the overall response to sexual assault cases. SAKI’s webpage reports:

203,552  kits inventoried
95,140  kits sent for testing
90,851  kits tested to completion
36,323  DNA profiles uploaded to CODIS
17,670  CODIS hits
2,553  CODIS hits to serial sex offenders
9,519  CODIS hits to serial violent offenders
26,938  investigations
2,520  cases charged
1,428  convictions
*These stats are updated quarterly according to SAKI’s webpage

Strategic Partnerships with Advocacy Groups:

Collaboration with advocacy groups and organizations committed to eliminating the rape kit backlog is essential. By forging partnerships, the state can share resources, expertise, and support, implementing best practices in evidence collection, testing, and survivor support. Such collaborations strengthen Pennsylvania’s efforts to address and resolve the issue.

Transparent Data Collection and Reporting:

In line with best practices, some states have implemented systems to track and report on the status of rape kits systematically. This includes both processed and unprocessed. This transparent approach aids in comprehending the extent of the problem and showcases the state’s commitment to public accountability.

Investing in Training and Education:

Recognizing the importance of investing in training programs for key personnel involved in the collection and processing of rape kits. Law enforcement personnel, forensic analysts, and healthcare professionals receive comprehensive training, ensuring everyone is well-equipped and proficient. This commitment contributes to a more efficient and effective handling of sexual assault cases in the state.

While progress has been made, there is still work to be done to ensure that every rape kit is tested promptly. We encourage you to learn what is happening in your state.

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